JAGJIVAN RAM, SHRI, B.Sc., [U.A.—Bihar, Sasaram (Res. Sch. Castes), 1984] s. of Shri Sobhi Ram; b. at Chandwa, Bhojpur District, April 5, 1908; ed. and Patna University, Banaras Hindu University and Calcutta University; Honorary Doctorate Degrees conferred by Kanpur, Ujjain and Waltair Universities; m. Smt. Indrani Devi, June 2, 1935; 1 s. and 1 d.; Political and Social Worker; Previously associated with (i) Indian National Congress (1933-77) and (ii) Congress for Democracy (till the merger with Janata Party); formed Indian Congress (J) in 1980, During the 1930 Congress movement helped secretly in the circulation of leaflets/pamphlets about the movement; appeared before the Hammond Commission as representative of Scheduled Castes in 1936; offered Individual Satyagraha and was imprisoned for a year in December, 1940; arrested in Patna, August 1942 and detained under the 'Quit India Movement'; released from jail in October 1943 on medical grounds; appeared before the Cabinet Mission, April 1946 as the accredited leader of the Scheduled Castes; Parliamentary Secretary, Bihar Government, 1937-39; Union Minister for (i) Labour, 1946-52, (ii) Communications, 1952-56, (iii) Transport and Railways, 1956-57, (iv) Railways, 1957-62, (v) Transport and Communications, 1962-63; resigned under Kamraj Plan for revitalising the party; again Union Minister for (i) Labour, Employment and Rehabilitation, 1966, (ii) Food, Agriculture, Community Development and Co-operation, 1967-70 (holding additional charge of the Ministry of Labour, Employment and Rehabilitation, 1969-79), (iii) Defence, 1970-74, (iv) Agriculture and Irrigation 1974-77, (v) Defence, March, 1977—July 1979; also Deputy Prime Minister, January, 1979— July 1979.
Secretary, Bihar Provincial Congress Committee, 1940-46; Member, (i) All India Congress Committee, 1940-77, (ii) All India Congress Working Committee, 1948-77, (iii) Congress Economic Planning Subcommittee, 1948-50, (iv) Central Election Committee, 1951-56 and 1961-77; and (v) Central Parliamentary Board, All India Congress Committee, 1950-77; Chairman, Reception Committee 67th Session of Indian National Congress, Patna, 1962; President, (i) Plenary Session of Indian National Congress, Bombay, 1969, (ii) Indian National Congress 1969-71 and (iii) Congress for Democracy, February 1977— May 1977.
President, All India Depressed Classes League, 1936-46; Provincial (State) Secretary, Harijan Sewak Sangh, Bihar, 1933; Member, Executive Committee, Hindustan Mazdoor Sewak Sangh since April 1947; Trustee, (i) Gandhi Smark Nidhi, (ii) Vallabhbhai Patel Trust and (iii) Jawahar Lal Nehru Memorial Trust; was President of several Trade Unions; Vice-President, Bihar Branch, All India Trade Union Congress, 1940; also formed Bihar Provincial Khet Mazdoor Sabha, 1937; Deputy Commissioner, Bihar Branch, Hindustan Scouts Association, 1940; Nominated Municipal Commissioner by Bihar Government to represent Scheduled Castes in 1932.
Member, (i) Bihar Legislative Council, 1936-37 (nominated) and (ii) Bihar Legislative Assembly, 1937-40; Member, (i) Central Legislative Assembly and Constituent Assembly, 1946-50, (ii) Provisional Parliament, 1950-52, (iii) First Lok Sabha, 1952-57, (iv) Second Lok Sabha, 1957-62, (v) Third Lok Sabha, 1962-67, (vi) Fourth Lok Sabha, 1967-70, (vii) Fifth Lok Sabha, 1971-77, (viii) Sixth Lok Sabha, 1977-79, (ix) Seventh Lok Sabha, 1980-84; was also Leader of the Janata Party in Parliament and Leader of the Opposition in the Lok Sabha, 1979.
Leader, Indian Delegation to the International Labour Organisation Conference, Geneva June, 1947; Chairman, Preparatory Asia Regional Conference of the International labour Organisation, New Delhi, October-November, 1947; Leader, Indian Delegation to 33rd Session of the International Labour Organisation, 1950 and also unanimously elected Chairman of the Conference; Leader Indian Delegation to, (i) the Asian Labour Ministers' Conference, Manila, 1966, (ii) the Food and Agricultural Organisation Conference, Rome, 1967, 1969, 1974, 1976 and (iii) the World Food Congress, Hague, 1970.
Social activities: Took active interest in movement for social reform and for the upliftment of the weaker sections of the society from student days; while at Banaras Hindu University organised Scheduled Castes to protest against social discrimination; later organised the Scheduled Castes at Calcutta, and arranged conferences to draw the attention of social and political leaders of Bengal; participated in the anti-untouchability movement started by Gandhiji; took part in relief work after the earthquake of 1934, under the leadership of Dr. Rajendra Prasad.
Favourite pastime and recreation: Gardening, reading, swimming, dance, drama, music and fine arts.
Special interests: Economic, Philosophy, Mathematics and Space.
Publications: A collection of speeches on Labour Problems; Caste Challenge in India.
Sports and clubs: Tennis, Member, Constitution Club, New Delhi.
Travels abroad: Europe, U.S.S.R. and South Asian countries.
Permanent address: Chandwa Village and P.O., Chandwa, Arrah, District Bhojpur, Bihar.